Rens Bijma




This study includes 33 chapters.
All chapters can be downloaded from the Chapters tab.
The conclusions of all chapters can be viewed separately from the Conclusions tab.
The topics of the chapters are:



I. Introduction, justification

The two main churches in Leipzig:

II. The Thomaskirche
III. The Nikolaikirche

Bach’s musicians, the number of musicians, the positioning and the circumstances:

IV. Bach’s musicians
V. The number of players
VI. The number of singers
VII. Bach’s direction
VIII. The positioning of the musicians
IX. The organisation of the Music and the conditions during the church services

Performance practice:

X. Pitch, tuning and intonation.
XI.1. Tempo 1: Basic tempos and the factors that could influence the tempo
XI.2 Tempo 2: The basic tempos of the metres
XI.3. Tempo 3: Time changes, dance forms and French overtures
XII. Articulation and synchronisation
XIII. Dynamics
XIV. Ornamentation
XV. The art of singing
XVI. The recitative
XVII. The chorale

The continuo instruments:

XVIII. The organ
XIX. The harpsichord
XX. The accompaniment (general bass)
XXI. The violoncello
XXII. The violone
XXIII. The bassoon
XXIV. The viola da gamba
XXV. The lute

The other instruments:

XXVI. The violin and the viola
XXVII. Special string instruments
XXVIII. The flutes
XXIX. The oboes
XXX. The trumpet and the timpani
XXXI. The horn and the lituus
XXXII. The cornetto and the trombone

Caput selectum:

XXXIII. Bach’s own performances of his Matthäus-Passion